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WU Libraries Manuscript Collections -
Review Questions for the
Manuscripts and Archives Reading Group
April - August 2004


Monday April 19, 2004

*Chapter 12 in Schellenberg, Theodore R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.
1. The Minister of Public Instruction in 1921 created a number of articles pertaining to the destruction of public records. Which of the following is not contained in those articles?
a. The greater part of the public records are preserved indefinitely.
b. Elimination should be considered exceptional.
c. All materials created before 1830 are to be presered indefinitely.
d. Materials that contain information summarized in print form or are having only current usefulness may be destroyed.
e. Extremes are to be avoided.

2. The test of evidential value is considered an objective approach, what three elements in American archival standards are needed to judge the evidential value of records?

3. What are the four major categories of records to consider when assessing evidential value using American standards?

4. In appraising corporate records for information value, what facts about the information does the archivist need to know?

5. Meissner included "Old age is to be respected" as one of his five general standards, what are the chronological dates before which all records are kept for France, Germany, England and US?

6. The French were attributed to the concept of the "fonds" or the principle of provinance, the Germans were attributed the concept of original order or "registry principle", and the British added the retention of "specimens" for their representative character. What further concept did the American standards contribute?

*Chapter 5 & 6 Ellis, Judith, editor. Keeping Archives, 2nd Edition. Port Melbourne: D. W. Thorpe and Society of Australian Archivists, 1993.
Chapter 5
1. What is an acquisition policy? p. 143

2. How do you support your acquisition policy? p. 145+

3. How do you decide what your archives will acquire?

4. A big donor wants to donate his papers to your archives, and with it a large sum of money to help care for his collection and other collections. However, his papers do not fit with your mission statement. Do you take his papers?

Chapter 6
1. What is evidential value? p. 158

2. What is informational value? p. 160

3. What types of records show evidential value? p. 159

4. What types of records show informational value? p. 160

5. What are other ways (in addition to the ways discussed in chapter 5) to decide weather to take a collection or not? p. 191

6. How do you decide what/how to dispose of a collection? p. 166

*Ham, F. Gerald. Selecting and Appraising Archives and Manuscripts, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1993.
1. What is the first responsibility of archivists? What are their most important contributions to civilization?

2. Explain David Bearmans concept of Archival Darwinism as a selection methodology.

3. Discuss the use of sampling in archives.

4. What are the steps in accessioning and why are they important?

5. What are the five basic tools an archivist uses in appraising specific records to be added to a collection?

Taylor, Marvin J. "I'll be your mirror, reflect what you are": postmodern documentation and the downtown New York scene from 1975 to the present. RBM v. 3 no1 (Spring 2002) p. 32-52
1. Which of the following is found in "What's so special about special collections?" by Marvin Taylor
a. a critique the connoisseurship model of library collecting,
b. an attack on the documentation model of library collecting
c. a critique of the documentation model and attempts to provide a more sophisticated understanding of how libraries can build collections with it.

2. According to Taylor, in what ways do library procedures distort the record of culture they collection? p. 34, Give examples of this distortion. p. 38-41.

Endelman, Judith E. "Looking backward to plan for the future: collection analysis for manuscript repositories." The American Archivist v. 50 (Summer '87) p. 340-55

Sauer, Cynthia K ."Doing the best we can? The use of collection development policies and cooperative collecting activities at manuscript repositories." The American Archivist v. 64 no2 (Fall/Winter 2001) p. 308-49
1. According to Cynthia Sauers article, why have a written collection development policy? Why not?

2. Similarly, why would a repository engage in cooperative collecting? Why not?

3. What event was the beginning of an archival focus on collecting strategies?

4. Which author proposed the 18 point model collection development policy?

5. In what ways would a written collection development policy be different for a manuscript repository than a institutional archives?

6. According to Sauers survey, what percentage of manuscript repositories surveyed had a written collection development policy.

7. For those manuscript repositories without a collection development policy, what were the reasons given by those surveyed?

8. On the average, institutions incorporated 7.8 of 18 points in their written collection development policy. What were some of these common points?

9. In what kinds of situations was a collection development policy used? In what situations was it ignored.

10. What did Sauer conclude from the results of the survey?

Monday April 26, 2004
Arrangement & Description

*Chapters 14 &15. Schellenberg, Theodore R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.





*Chapters 7,8 & 9. Ellis, Judith, editor. Keeping Archives, 2nd Edition. Port Melbourne: D. W. Thorpe and Society of Australian Archivists, 1993.
Chapter 7.
1. How detailed should the Accession Record be? p. 215+

2. You get a collection which includes correspondence and photographs commissioned by the donor of a photographer. You have a collection of this particular photographer already in the archives. Where do these photographs end up? p. 214
a.Keep them with the donor's material.
b.Separate out the photographs and add them to the photographers collection.

3. You receive a collection that includes photographs spread throughout the collection. What do you do with the photographs? p. 214
a. Keep them in the order you found them until you can examine the collection further and determine the context of the photographs.
b. Separate out the photographs so the different formats are stored together.

Chapter 8
1. Define arrangement. p. 222

2. Define description. p. 223

3. You receive John Doe's papers from his widow. Among the papers are letters from various prominent men in the community. You already have separate collections for the prominent men. What do you do with these letters? p. 225
a. Keep them with John Doe's papers.
b. Separate them into the appropriate prominent man's collection already established.

4. You receive the correspondence of a company. One group is arranged chronologically, another group is arranged alphabetically and a third group has no discernable order on first examination. How do you arrange this material? p. 227

5. What questions should archivists ask as they examine a collection? p. 229

6. What information should be included on series description sheets? 237+

Chapter 9
1. What information is standard on finding-aids and keeps coming up for any description?

2. What are seven different types of finding-aids and what are their characteristics? p. 250-253

3. What are seven key areas to be considered when archviists are planning finding-aids? p. 265+

*Hensen, Steven L. Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1989.
1) What is the title of the book used by American archivists to create descriptions of archival materials? What is the name of the book used by catalogers for books?

2) Describe the relationship (in terms of content and procedure) between the books used for manuscript cataloging and print-material cataloging.

3) What kind of record has been typically used for USMARC archival descriptions? What kind of records can be used now?

4) Define the term "supplied title." (Rule 1.1B2)

5)Describe how a uniform title can be used for archival or manuscript materials.

*Miller, Fredric M. Arranging and Describing Archives and Manuscripts, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1990.
page 3-5 11-15, Question 1. What is the difference between archives and manuscripts …?

page 19 Question 2 What is the background and meaning of the basic archival principles: provenance, original order, levels of control, collective description?

page 37-38 Question 3 What are the physical aspects of accessioning?

page 39, Question 4 What are the intellectual aspects of accessioning?

page 47, Question 5 What overall context is provided for planning resources, admin, and automation for further processing work?

page 57, Question 6 What is the five level hierarchy of arrangement (large to small)?

page 61, Question 7 What are the four levels of control?

page70-78, Question 8 What are six stages to achieve the goal of making arrangement and description of records usable?

page 83, Question 9 What are the three elements of description in information gathering?

page 90, Question 10 What is progressive refinement?

page 91, Question 11 What are the five internal descriptive tools or finding-aids?

page 91, Question 12 What are the three external descriptive tools or finding-aids?

Articles: Dooley, Jackie. Encoded Archival Description: Context, Theory and Case Studies, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1998. [Originally published as American Archivist, vol. 60, nos. 3 & 4.]
1. According to Dennis Meissner, the first step in implementing EAD is __________? What experiences in coding sample finding aids and reference work caused the university of Minnesota to take this drastic step? What was the result?

2. Yale and Harvard d had to hammer out a common finding aid form before implementing EAD. Nichole Bouche describes how a rigorous database structure and format in past years made output to EAD finding aids easy. Since they had databases, wouldn't the better course have been to code the data using Dublin Core or MARC and forget finding aids with introductory matter and "levels of description". Aren't finding aids an antiquated format that users do not understand and have little patience with? What was the result of their efforts?

3. The resource allocator for a small repository asks the following question? How would you answer it? How would Elizabeth Dow at the University of Vermont answer this question based on her small repository experience with EAD. "I don't have any serious objections to using EAD, but neither do I really see what it will do for us. As far as I can determine, EAD and XML are coding devices and I have not been able to discover what either would do for us that HTML {for finding aids] and/or Dublin Core [for scanned archival visual materials] wouldn't provide with much less effort.. Anyone want to make the effort to explain it to me?"

Monday May 10, 2004
Text Encoding, Edition, Digital Archives

*Chapter 16 in Schellenberg, Theodore R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.
1. What are the twin objectives of all archival effort? p. 224

2. Name Schellenberg's three reasons why access to government records should be denied in the public interest. p. 227,229, 230

3. In his chapter on reference service, Schellenberg is concerned with which records? p. 224
a. U. S. government records
b. all government records
c. all records, public and private
d. records of private institutions.

4. True or false
a. Every restriction should be subject to some limitation in time so that all records that are preserved will eventually be opened to public use, p. 225.
b. A restriction of at least fifty years has been placed by law on all U.S. government records. p. 225

5. Historians and archivists both help history. How?

6. How are documentary publications supported and funded?

7. Why are documentary publications important?

8. How is it decided what is published and what steps are taken?

Text Encoding Initiative Home Page http://www.tei-c.org/ (20031007)
1. What is TEI?

2. Who does TEI help?

3. What are the benefits of TEI?

Brown, John Seely and Duguid, Paul. "The Social Life of Documents." First Monday http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue1/documents/ (20031007)
1. Are documents and institutions dissolving with new technologies, according to this article? Explain.

2. Explain documents as darts.

3. Explain links by text.

4. How do documents enable a community?

5. How can we apply the information in this article to archives?

McGann, Jerome. "The Rossetti Archive and Image-Based Electronic Editing" http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/public/jjm2f/imagebase.html (20031007)

Monday May 24, 2004
Reference and User Access

*Chapter 17 from Schellenberg, Theodore R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.

*Chapters 10. Ellis, Judith, editor. Keeping Archives, 2nd Edition. Port Melbourne: D. W. Thorpe and Society of Australian Archivists, 1993.
1. *How is access regulated? **p. 274

2. *Why should an archives have an access policy? What factors need to be considered in developing an access policy? *p.275

3. *What are the administrative procedures that support the access policy?*p.279

4. *Discuss the importance of copyright. **p. 281

5. *What are the problems involved in reproduction of records in an archive? *p. 284

*Pugh, Mary Jo. Providing Reference Services for Archives and Manuscripts, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1992.
1. What are the three phrases of the reference process and what is involved in each phase? (p. 41)

2. What are the concepts used to design access policies (p. 56) and what elements are included in an access policy? ( p.60)

3. What are the six exceptions to the practice of equality? (p. 60)

4. What guidelines determine fair use? (p. 83)

5. What are the three models for organizing reference service? (p. 93)

6. How can one measure archive use quantitatively? (p. 101)

7. What are the five steps in planning a user study? (p.102)

McKim, Joshua G. An analysis of the management of Email reference services in public university archive and manuscript collections. Thesis (MSLS) Univ of NC at Chapel Hill. United States 2000

Monday, June 7, 2004

*Chapter 11. Ellis, Judith, editor. Keeping Archives, 2nd Edition. Port Melbourne: D. W. Thorpe and Society of Australian Archivists, 1993.
1. What does Pederson say is the reason for archivists to undertake active programs aimed at the public? p. 306

2. Give examples of public programs. p. 307-308

3. Give the four steps to planning an education program. p. 309-312

4. Successful education programs have these three characteristics, name them. p. 314

5. List things to consider for the following education program activities:
a. Exhibits p. 315-319
b. Public Relations p. 320-324
c. Publications p. 325-330
d. Classes, Seminars, Workshops p. 331-339
e. Community Support Systems p. 339

*Finch, Elsie Freeman. Advocating Archives: An Introduction to Public Relations for Archivists. Metuchen, NJ: The Society of American Archivists and Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1994.
1. What are the eight interlocking and inter-changeable publics discussed by Finch and Conway? p. 5-6. Talking to God/Finch and Conway

2. Name five elements of service fundamental to good public relations? p.7 Talking to God/Finch and Conway.

3. What are the fundamental steps in private sector fundraising? p. 26 Money Talk/Hohmann

4. What does one include in the material packets supplied to solicitors? p. 33. Money Talk/Hohmann.

5. What are the elements of a sample news release? p. 42 In Print, On Air/Sniffin-Marinoff.

6. What are some rules of thumb when working with photo releases? p. 43 In Print, On Air/Sniffin-Marinoff.

7. What are the four categories of marketing techniques? p. 56 Modest Proposals/Mooney.

8. What are the five important steps in finding out if a celebration is significant? p. 66 Anniversaries/Ericson.

9. What are the four major elements in planning a volunteer program? p. 85 Volunteers and Friends/Randle.

10. What is the primary function of a Friends Group, some examples of activities and its relationship to the repository Director? p. 94-96. Volunteers and Friends/Randle.

11. What are the three precautions/assessments that can help you plan for the unexpected? p. 100-102. Trouble-shooting/Bressor and Bressor.

12. What can you prepare in advance to better deal with the public, the press and your organization when trouble occurs? p. 103-104. Trouble shooting/Bressor and Bressor.

Monday June 21, 2004

*Chapter 13 in Schellenberg, Theodore R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.
1. What qualities in storage adversely effect archival materials?
'...light, adverse temperature and humidity, acidic pollution of the air, and impurities in... paper'(quoted from 1937 Bureau of Standards report, Schellenberg p. 161). Have things changed much since Schellenberg emphasized this report?

2. On page 165 Schellenberg advocates using cellulose acetate to laminate documents. Is this current practice in archives? Why? What alternative procedures exist now? What materials are typically used now? Why do we use them?

3. What does Schellenberg say is an alternative to repair? Does your archives follow this procedure? p. 167

*Chapter 3. Ellis, Judith, editor. Keeping Archives, 2nd Edition. Port Melbourne: D. W. Thorpe and Society of Australian Archivists, 1993.
1. What is Paul Conway's 3 part definition that summarizes current opinions of archival preservation? p. 76

2. What are the two responses to preservation problems? Explain. p. 76

3. What are some current approaches to archival preservation? p. 77

4. Who's responsible for preservation? p. 77-78

5. What are way to know your collection and preservation needs? Explain. p. 79
a. Environmental Survey
b. Condition Survey

6. What are two kinds of deterioration? (similar to Schellenberg) p. 81

7. Describe problems with paper over time. p. 81-82

8. What are two ways to deal with electronic data? p. 83

9. What are two priorities for an archival building, in terms of preservation? p. 84-86

10. What are examples of enclosures used for preservation? p. 88-89

11. What are benefits of exhibitions? But what are preservation problems to consider? p. 91-92

12. Explain some general principles for repairing material. p. 94-95

13. What are the four part to a disaster plan? Explain. p. 99

14. Case Study: Your resource allocator has asked you to put up an exhibit to add to the upcoming anniversary celebration. They want the most rare and precious material displayed.
--Do you put up whatever they ask for?
--Do you only put up exhibit if lighting is control 50 lux or less and the humidity and temperature are stable and controlled?
--Do you put up material that has not been on longterm display?
--Do you use whatever support so the items look good even if it strains the material?

*Ritzenthaler, Mary Lynn. Preserving Archives and Manuscripts. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1993.
1. What four principles upon which a successful preservation program is based? p. viii.

2. What are the core elements of an archives preservation program? p. 6.

3. What is the dominant term now used in most institution that are concerned with the long term keeping of cultural artifacts (including archival records, library collections or museum holdings) i.e., providing a suitable and safe environment that enhances the useable life of the collection. p.2
a. preservation
b. restoration
c. conservation
d. rehabilitation

4. What are the broad concerns of preservation (p. 2) and the two challenges particular to archives (p. 3)?

5. What are the 8 core preservation program elements (p. 6)?

6. When you survey a collection, what are some examples of evidence of instability that you would want to make note of (p. 10)?

7. What is a reasonable monetary goal for your preservation budget (p. 14) and what are the nine program elements for consideration in your budget (p. 15)?

8. What are the primary responsibilities of an archivist re: preservation (p.19)?

9. What is the definition of paper (p. 20)?

10. What are the characteristics of hand made paper (p.21) and how does it differ from machine produce paper?

11. Describe the dominant copying processes (p. 30).

12. What are the ten copying inks (p. 31-34)?

13. What does the long-term stability of photographic materials relate to (p.38)?

14. What are the adhesives that are likely to be associated with records (p.42)?

15. The rate of deterioration is dependent on the inherent chemical stability of the material in combination with the external influences and handling. While you cannot do much about the innate factors, what externalities can you impact (p. 47)?

16. What are the three goals of an environmental system (p.52)?

17. What are the common principles for moving records (p. 68)?

18. What should be considered when dealing with machine dependent materials (p. 73)?

19. List some factors to consider when determining the height of shelving units (p. 77).

20. How can you tell if your paper housing materials are archival quality (p. 82)?

21. What are some helpful packing techniques (p. 105)?

22. What ten preservation actions can be carried out before records are made available to the public (p. 113)?

23. What needs to be taken into account before initiating a photocopying project (p. 125)?

24. What are the sequential steps to be followed in a microfilming project (p.128)?

25. What questions should be asked to determine if conservation treatment is warranted (p. 134) ?

Appendix D is fertile ground for case study questions.

Monday July 5, 2004

Chapter 11 in Schellenberg, Theodore R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.
1. Which of the following does Schellenberg consider to be basic to all activities of an archivist? p. 118
a. preservation
b. disposition
c. reference
d. analysis of records
e. description

2. Define analysis of records. p. 118

3. Explain how records analysis aids the following archival activities. p. 118-119
a. appraisal
b. accessioning
c. arrangement
d. production of finding aids (description

4. What factors determine the position in the hierarchy that the archivist is given? p. 119

5. In the early years , the National Archives was organized with separate divisions to accession, classify, catalog, and perform reference service. This is organization of archives staff based on what? p. 127
a. subject expertise
b. function
c. performance by objective
d. hair color

6. Schellenberg assigned work to archival staff based on which approach in Question 5 above ? Why did he think this worked better? p. 126

7. What steps does the archivist go through in devising workplans for staff. p. 128-130

*Wilsted, Thomas and William Nolte. Managing Archival and Manuscript Repositories, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1991.
Chapters 1 - 5
1. When did conscious attention to management begin and what was Henri Fayols contribution? p. 4

2. Describe the Internal and External Environments of an organization. What factors make up these two environments? p. 5-7

3. What are some of the qualities of an effective archival manager? What is your opinion of yourself as a manager? p. 9-14

4. What is the value of a policy statement in archival management?
Discuss the 8 outlines of a policy statement. p. 16

5. Are flow charts and organizational charts necessary and beneficial to an organization? p.21-25

6. What is the purpose of the planning process and when should it begin? p. 29

7. What are the steps in the hiring process? p.36

8. Case Study: You are the manager of an archival institution and a problem develops with one of your employees. What would you suggest as a possible solution:
1. Talk to other employees and see if they know what the problem might be?
2. Have a talk with the employee, but dont let them do any of the talking?
3. Discuss the problem with the employee using predetermined guidelines?
4. Forget the whole thing and hope everything works out for the best? p. 42

Chapters 6 - 9
1. What two financial control functions must a manager understand? p. 47 Ch 6

2. What are the three components of the financial planning? p. 48. Ch 6.

3. What is the difference between line item budgeting and program budgeting? p. 50. Ch 6.

4. What is the difference between cash accounting and accrual accounting? p. 53. Ch 6.

5. What are the six facility standards that all archives attempt to maintain? p. 55-56 Ch 7

6. What should be considered when purchasing equipment (p. 60) and when purchasing supplies (p. 61-62)? Ch 7

7. What is the preferred type of shelving for archives? p.59-60 Ch 7

8. What steps in financial planning should precede seeking additional levels of funding support? p. 69 Chapter 8

9. What needs to be done before seeking internal funding? p. 70 Ch 8

10. What are the 5 types of information to include in a grant proposal and the 3 most important activities in managing a grant? p. 73. Ch8

11. What are the two kinds of annual reports and what is included in each? p. 85-86 Ch 9

12. What marketing techniques do archives use and how is market research carried out? p. 82 Ch 9

13. Steps in planning a pr program p. 81

14. Archival manager positions institution to deal effectively with change: p. 94

15. Sequence of phases for systems planning. Requirements and system design p.90

Monday, July 19, 2004
Law and Ethics

International Council on Archives. Code of Ethics, Adopted by the General Assembly at its XIIIrd session in Beijing (China), September 6, 1996.

*Peterson, Trudy Huskamp and Gary Peterson. Archives and Manuscripts: Law, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1985.
Question 1 What are the two facts about federal records laws that are important for all archivists? page 9

Question 2 What is the main difference between public and private institutions in regard to who governs? page 10

Question 3 What are problems with public archives? page 12

Question 4 What are some questions regarding record status (basically how to define if archives gets material)? page 13

Question 5 In the federal statute, what three types of material are defined as nonrecord? page 13

Question 6 What five question help decide if working papers are record or nonrecord (based on 1981 National Archives task force)? page 14

Question 7 What are 10 criteria to be used in making agency record determination (official records or private papers)page 16

Question 8 What are the key points that the transferring office and the archives must agree on when documents are transferred? So the transfer doc should: page 21

Question 9 What are two reasons to document transfer for legal purposes even when title remains constant? page 20

Question 10 What is an important difference between public and private archives? page 22

Question 11 What are the three most common instruments used to record the transfer of property? Explain page 24

Question 12 What are some questions to ask in developing an instrument of gift? page 25-26

Question 13 Under the current law, the allowance of a deduction for the donation of personal papers depends on what three factors? page 35

Question 14 What are the five restriction categories common to archives? Explain. page 39-42

Question 15 What are stages of administration of access? page 60

1. Legal problems won't arise when the institution limits access to p. 72
a. scholars
b. serious researchers
c. qualified researchers
d. minors accompanied by an adult.

2. When limiting access, which principle in the SAA-ALA joint statement on access must apply? P. 72
a. equal access to records to all third party researchers
b. freedom of information
c. the right to privacy
d. the right to confidentiality
e. all of the above

3. If the archives make information on one researcher's materials available to another, this is p.75
a. a legal issue
b. an ethical issue
c. both an legal issue and an ethical issue but the ethical issues are paramount
d. both an legal issue and an ethical issue but the legal issues are paramount
e. neither a legal issue nor an ethical one. However, a statement on the disclosure of researcher materials should be on the patron registration.

4. If the archives make information on a researcher's topic available to another, this is p.75
a. a legal issue
b. an ethical issue
c. both an legal issue and an ethical issue but the ethical issues are paramount
d. both an legal issue and an ethical issue but the legal issues are paramount
e. neither a legal issue nor an ethical one. However, a statement on the disclosure of topics should be on the patron registration.

5. Research registration forms often include a statement about permission to publish. In which archives do these not appear because no restrictions are allowed.p.75
a. public archives covered by the freedom of information act
b. public archives not covered by the freedom of information act
c. private archives
d. public institutions such as state college or university.
e. historical societies.

6. The breech of the signed acknowledgment of the publication policy of the archives is p. 76
a. a breech of contract
b. a basis for a lawsuit
c. a felony in most states
d. a misdemeanor
e. a and b

7. This clause in a researcher registration form is called, QUOTE: I agree to indemnify and hold harmless the BLANK Archives, its officers and . . .. P. 76
a. "hold harmless' provisions
b. publication provisions
c. copyright provisions
d. freedom of information provisions

8. Researcher R, being a free-lance writer uses the donated records of a steel company. The deed of gift stipulates that the records must be screen to remove personal and medical information about living individuals. The archives decides to make all materials available without screening and to rely on the hold-harmless clause to protect it self if the writers uses materials that should be restricted. The writer publishes an unflattering psychological profile of a top former company manager. He sues the writer and the archives. What is not likely in the outcome? P. 76.
a. The archives loses since it did not complete its legal responsibilites to restrict information specified in the deed of gift before probiding records to the writer.
b. The researcher loses but the archives is not a party to the suit.
c. The hold harmless clauses may mitigate the damages assessed against the archives.
d. The hold harmless clause may allow the archives to sue the researcher if the archives has to pay damages.

9. If a staff member of the archives suspects that a researcher is defacing or attempting to steal documents, what two things should be done immediately. P. 77

10. From a repleving point of view, which procedure is best
a. stamping the document with the name of the archives in permanent ink
b. limit the number of documents the researcher can use at anyone time
c. require signing the register each time a researcher enters
d. a reference slip with full description of the document and the users signature

11. A policy of prohibiting photostatic or digital copies of documents but allowing note-taking does the following p. 79
a. Follows copyright law
b. Slows the speed of research and prevents an exact copy of the format
c. Is against the freedom of information act
d. Frees archives staff to do the really important work
e. Is illegal

12. A certified copy of a document p. 80
a. Is an authentic copy of the document in that archives
b. Authenticates the original document
c. Is only done by private archives

13. Which is not true of archival loans? P. 80
a. furnishing original documents on loan is a form of reference service
b. loans are usually requests within the institution or government for research purposes
c. loans are usually requests outside the institution or government for exhibition
d. loans are usually requests outside the institution or government for research purposes
e. the extra-institutional borrower should be required to obtain an insurance policy for the value of the document (s)

14. The right to reward creativity by recognizing and protecting the property rights of the creator of the item is p. 81
a. covered in Article 1 Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution
b. given to Congress
c. given to the Executive
d. a. and b
e. a and c

15. Which is not true of The copyright act of 1976 and its revisions? P. 81
a. makes copyright registration optional for the first time
b. applies to computer programs
c. all rights under common law or state law are preempted by the 1976 act
d. duration is 28 years plus another 28 year renewal
e. applies to unpublished materials

16. Current copyright law says unpublished materials created before January 1, 1978 are and not previously copyrighted or in the public domain are protected by p. 81-82
a. 28 years plus 28 years.
b. Life plus 50 years.
c. The fifty year rule
d. The 75 year rule.
e. No rule; they are not protected.

17.The copyright act gives certain exclusive rights to the owner of copyright. Which is not an exclusive right of the owner?
a. to copy
b. publish
c. transfer ownership
d. prepare derivative works
e. place a copyright notice when published

18. The archivist needs to presume that reproduction of unpublished material is an infringement of copyright unless p. 82
a. the copyright has been donated to the archives
b. the copyright has been sold to the archives
c. the unpublished material is from a federal source
d. all of the above

19. Which of the following statements are true? P.82
a. Copyright protects ideas.
b. Patents protect ideas.
c. The owner or donor of a letter holds copyright to the letter
d. The creator of a letter holds copyright
e. B and d

19. The copyright rules are strict and permit no copying unless the archives owns the copyright. Which exceptions allow copies to be made for users by the archives. P.82
a. fair use
b. section 107 and 108 of the 1796 copyright act
c. archives and library copying
d. all of the above
e. the freedom of information act

20. Fair use is not p. 82-83
a. a common law doctrine developed by the courts
b. a shield for some forms of copying from the literal implications of the former copyright act.
c. A limitation on exclusive rights extended only to libraries and archives
d. for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research
e. an attempt to balance the public right of access to knowledge or general importance with the author's right to protect his intellectual creation.

21. What factor is not considered by the courts in considering fair use? P.83
a. the effect of the use on the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
b. The nature of the copyrighted work
c. The purpose and character of the use , including whether it is of a commercial nature or non-profit educational purpose
d. The amount and substanitality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
e. The presence of a notice of copyright in the copies provided.

22. For an institution to copy a work without infringement of section 108, library and archives copying, which of the following must apply p. 83
a. the institution must be open to the public or open to researchers in a specialized field,
b. the institution must not be copying for a commercial purpose,
c. the institution must include a notice of copyright in the copies produced
d. all of the above
e. the copies must be for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research

23. This notice is posted at photocopiers in libraries and archives and placed on any order form for copies. Why? NOTICE, WARNING CONCERNING COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS. The copyright law if the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of phtocopies or other reproduction of copyrighted materials p.83-84
a. Section 107 Fair Use
b. Section 108 Archives and Library copying
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above

24. Which of the following is not a legal remedy available in the case of infringement of copyright. Which remedies are the likely consequence of a suit against an archives for copyright infringement?
a. injunction against further infringement
b. recovery of actual damages
c. recovery of punitive damages.
d. recovery of profits made by the infringer
e. recovery of statuatory damages
f. recovery of costs and attorneys fees

25. Why must copyright be obtained in the deed of gift to the archival collection. P. 85

26. Why must copy orders in an archives go through a responsible archivist? P.86, Fig. 8-9
a. text materials and the following categories are covered by different rules: musical work, pictorial graphic or sculptual work, or a motion picture or other audiovisual work?
b. fair use doctrine may apply
c. archival reproduction section may apply
d. If the library does not have copyright, copying is not a routine matter. Infringement can mean a lawsuit.
e. all of the above
f. Copy orders are a routine matter and can be handled by clerical staff without archivists intervention

27. If a company or the archives microfilms a collection of documents in the public domain , are the documents themselves available for further reproduction? Explain why? P. 88

28. In an oral history interview, who holds copyright to the interview p.88-89
a. The interviewee
b. The interviewer
c. Each person in the interview holds copyright only to his/her words.
d. Oral histories are exceptions and in the public domain

29. What is authentication of public documents? p. 90

30. What is replevin of public documents? p. 91

31. If a set of letters in the manuscript collections bears the stamp, "Property of Trinity College, Dublin", can the documents be recovered by replevin?

32. If a Robert E. Lee letter to General Beauregard known to be part of you Beauregard Collection turns up in a California archives, what would you do first? P.92
a. sue
b. seek the advice of a lawyer
c. determine if the documents were clearly removed illegally
d. determine the significance of the documents since significant documents should always be sought
e. secure a copy.

33. If the suit to recover goes forward, how would the archivist help the lawyers? P. 93

*Society of American Archivists. A Code of Ethics for Archivists and Commentary, Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1992 RMBS. Standards for ethical conduct for rare book, manuscript, and special collections librarians, with guidelines for institutional practice in support of the standards, 2d edition, 1992. College & Research Libraries News no4(Apr. '93) p. 207-15

Monday August 2, 2004

Chapter 1 & 2 in Schellenberg, Theodore R. Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.

*Daniels, Maygene and Timothy Walch, editors. A Modern Archives Reader, Washington: National Archives and Records Administration, 1984.
1. What were the two separate sets of archives that were kept in Europe during the early years of archiving? p. 4

2. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, consolidation and differentiation of official archives resulted from: p. 4
a. residence of monarch became fixed
b. scope of administration expanded
c. communities began to establish a primitive kind of archival depository
d. paper came into use
e. all of the above

3. What was the principle of respect pour les fonds and where was it first proclaimed? (sorry, but I tookk these notes from another source and do not have page numbers at all times)

4. Karl Gustaf Weibull and Johannes Schultze showed how far the applicability of the principle of provenance is subject to certain restrictions. What are they? (no page again)

Chapter 2
1. Solon Buck in 1941 wrote about the organization and maintenance of records during the period of their active use. What was his statement about their relationship? (p. 23)

2. When did records management as a professional activity of government archives receive formal recognition? What did this recognition do for the records management profession? (p. 25)

3. What was Schellenbergs definition and importance of records management? (p. 37)

4. In Records Management and the Walking Archivist by Particia Bartkowski (p. 38-39) what are the steps the Walking Archivist follows to standardize transmittal of material to the archives? (p. 39)

5. When was the first records center established in the U.S.? What is their importance? (p. 47 - 51)

CHAPTER 8, Public Programs
A. Elsie Freedman – “Education Programs: Outreach as an Administrative Function”
1. P. 281 – what is the archivist’s special work? Gaining intellectual control of records

2. P. 282 – what must the archivist consider in order to create meaningful outreach programs rather than scattered events?
a. recognize that there are many “publics” – institutional researchers, general users, teachers, genealogists, avocational historians, government employees, publicists, media specialists, etc.
b. identify those potential publics in relation to our own mandates and type of institution
c. provide service to the largest number of people within any of the publics in ways that fit the intellectual and logistical needs of its members

3. P. 283 – what decisions must be made to develop an effective educational service?
a. who are we producing it for?
b. At what level of sophistication do they need to be produced?
c. In what format can they best be supplied to the maximum number of people?

4. P. 283 – what propositions provide context for archives as an educational institution?
a. historically, until the 20th century American learning was conducted through public and informal institutions; only recently have colleges and universities become primarily the province for adult education
b. public interest in history is currently flourishing in many arenas outside the classroom (genealogy esp.)

5. p. 285 – what is the multiplier effect? An organizing principle that makes outreach programs more efficient by:
a. reaching more clients in less time
b. providing service in bulk to multiply the number of potential clients
c. interchanging parts of various programs or combining several programs provides multiple service to any single public

6. p. 286 – who will execute our outreach programs? What are the options?
a. hire professional writers, audiovisual experts, designers, etc.
b. assess the talents of current staff (often revealed in informal ways)
c. create a network of talent within a region
d. learn how to do it ourselves through archival education programs about outreach

7. P. 287-88 – who will pay for the outreach programs?
a. public endowments and private foundations
b. charge the clients, commensurate with the value they receive from it

B. Joan Rabins – “Archival Exhibits: Considerations and Caveats”
1. p. 289 – what factors must be considered in the decision to prepare an exhibit?
a. is it relevant to the institution’s programs?
b. will it be detrimental to the safety and long-term physical condition of the archival materials?

2. P. 290-291 – why should an archives mount an exhibit?
a. to solicit funding
b. to appeal to potential donors of materials
c. to provide an outlet for the research and creative talents of the staff

3. p. 292-93 – what are the practical considerations, after deciding to prepare an exhibit?
a. select the display area
b. select an appropriate theme
1. timely topic
2. suitable to the collection
3. appropriate to the institution’s goals
4. attractive to the public
5. aesthetic appeal
6. realistic scheduling based on the budget and staff
7. sufficient lead time to:
a. do research
b. make arrangements with other institutions
c. printing
d. construction
e. plan tie-in events
f. generate publicity

4. p. 294 – how to achieve an effective publicity program?
a. begin with up-to-date list of sources to be routinely informed of all events (media, newsletter, “friends” group, journal notices)
b. attractive, well-written pamphlet providing background information
c. possibly a more elaborate catalog that can be sold

5. p. 295 – what is the final step on an exhibit? Detailed, critical report by the exhibit staff.

CHAPTER. The Illusion of Omniscience: Subject Access & the Ref Archivist/Mary Jo Pugh
1. How does SAA glossary define guide? p. 266

2. What are the 4 assumptions about subject access in traditional provenance based systems? p. 267-269

3. What are the two special concerns voiced about traditional methods currently used? p. 270-271

4. Why does Pugh say we don’t know our users? P. 272

5. Pugh believes that reference archivists need an alphabetical, updateable, multi-subject approach, which can be achieved only through content indexing in addition to provenance, based systems. Differentiate between the two. P. 273

6. What are the five ideas associated with Richard Berner’s recommendation to index inventories or registers through index posting sheets or card catalogs? P. 275-276

CHAPTER Reference/George Chalou
1. What are the three necessary elements of reference service that must be properly prepared and combined for maximum benefit. P. 257

2. What are the two important categories of ref services discussed by Chalou? p.260

3. Discuss equal access p. 260 Briefly stated all repositories of research materials make available their holding on equal terms of access. ( use judgement and common sense)

4. How does Chalou measure reference service p. 262-263?

*O’Toole, James M. Understanding Archives and Manuscripts, Chicago: Society ofAmerican Archivists, 1990.
Chapter 1 = recording, keeping and using information
1. p. 7-9 - In what ways have people recorded information and kept it available for long-term use?

2. P. 9 - what is the key turning point for a society undergoing a transition to literacy?

3. P. 10-13 - what are the reasons for recording information? What 6 types of records are made?

4. p. 13-14 - why do people save records after their original usefulness is over?

5. p. 15-20 - what are the technological means of record making?

6. p. 20-22 -- what are the characteristics of recorded information in the modern age?

7. p. 23-25 - what is the usefulness of archives?

Chapter 2: = the history of archives and the archives profession
1. p. 27-29 - what are the Old World Antecedents?

2. p. 30-33 - what are the American traditions?

3. P. 33-34 - how did the archival profession emerge?

4. P. 35-37 - what was crucial about the 1930s?

5. P. 37-40 - what characterized American archives after WWII?
Diversification and development

6. P. 41-46 -- how did the archival profession consolidate its identity?

7. P. 46-67 - what are current and future issues?

Chapter 3
1. What are the four categories of knowledge? p. 49

2. What are the seven values that archivists share? p. 58

Chapter 4
1. What are the seven management tasks? p. 61-63

2. What three activities comprise saving and acquiring records? p. 63-64

3. What activities are involved in organizing the archival record? 64-65

4. What five activities are involved in making records available? p. 66-68

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